History of Dublin City
Settled in prehistoric times, the city of Dublin's written history begins with the struggle between Vikings and Normans for control of Ireland. By the 12th century, the Normans came to dominate the country as well as its principal city. The history of both has been inseparably linked ever since.
The influx of Anglo-Norman newcomers led to an interesting combination of assimilation and segregation, with native-speaking Gaels relegated to the Pale. In the coming centuries, many of those with Anglo ancestry were reabsorbed into Irish Gaelic culture. By the 1600s, however, Dublin became the site of an almost constant struggle between Irish and English or Catholic and Protestant (although of course it was far more complicated than all that). As the capital of an Irish Kingdom that answered to England, Dublin enjoyed a certain amount of prosperity and peace throughout the 1700s.
The 19th century saw resurgence in Anglo-Irish interest in independence, and the parliaments in both London and Dublin responded with Unification. By the mid-1800s some Irish Catholics had regained citizenship. Industrial development led to large numbers of unskilled workers living in the city, which helped set the stage for the insurrections that would follow. Throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Dublin erupted with the Irish struggle for independence.
In the wake of the civil war in the early 1920s, Dublin regained its position as capital of Ireland and began to lead the new Republic's recovery. By the 1990s, through the development of its infrastructure and investment in the financial sector, Dublin and Ireland had emerged as the Celtic Tiger, a global economic contender.